Posts Tagged ‘grantor trust’

Income Taxation of the Third-Party Special Needs Trust

MARCH 23, 2015 VOLUME 22 NUMBER 12

Last week we wrote about how to handle income tax returns for self-settled special needs trusts. Our simple message: such trusts will always be “grantor trusts”, an income tax term that means they do not pay a separate tax or even file a separate return.

This week we’re going to try to explain third-party trust taxation. Unfortunately, the rules are not as straightforward or as simple. But that doesn’t mean you won’t understand them.

First, a quick definition of terms. A “third-party” special needs trust is one established by the person owning funds for the benefit of someone else — usually someone who is receiving public benefits. The usual purpose of such a trust is to allow the beneficiary to receive some assistance without forcing them to give up their Supplemental Security Income (SSI) or Medicaid (in Arizona, AHCCCS or ALTCS) benefits.

To figure out what to do about income taxes on the trust Jack set up, we need to consider a couple of questions:

  • Did Jack retain some levels of control over the trust while he’s still living?

If, for instance, Jack has the power to revoke the trust, or he stays as trustee, or even if he receives the trust’s assets back if Melanie dies before him, even this third-party trust may be a “grantor trust.” If it is, though, the grantor will be Jack — and he will probably pay any tax due on all of the trust’s taxable income. The trust will not need to have a separate EIN (tax number) and even if it does the actual income will usually be reported on Jack’s personal income tax return. None of the rest of this newsletter will be relevant to Jack’s income tax return.

What kinds of control might Jack have to trigger this treatment? There are volumes of suggestions and commentary written about that question, and it is impossible to answer without having spent some time reviewing the trust, its funding sources the IRS’s “grantor trust rules” and Jack’s intentions when he set it up. Some of the kinds of control might have been intentional, while others might surprise Jack (or even the lawyer who helped him draft the trust).

  • Does the trust treat principal and income differently?

Sometimes a trust might say that its income is available to the beneficiary, but not the principal (though this kind of arrangement is less common today than it was a few decades ago). In such a case the taxation of interest and dividends might be different from capital gains.

  • Does the trust require distribution of all income?

Some trusts mandate that the current beneficiary must be given all the trust’s income. That’s very rare in the case of special needs trusts (since the whole point is usually to prevent the beneficiary from having guaranteed income) but sometimes a trust might have been written before the beneficiary’s disability was known, and inappropriate provisions might still be included. If the trust does require distribution of income, it will be what the tax code calls a “simple” trust and will have some slight income tax benefit. But it also will probably need to be modified (if it can be) to eliminate the mandatory distribution language.

  • Has the trust made actual distributions for the benefit of the beneficiary?

It is a bit of an oversimplification, but usually trust distributions result in the beneficiary paying the tax due. That is true even though the distribution is not of income. Let us explain (but not before warning you that we are going to simplify the numbers and effect somewhat):

Assume for a moment that Jack’s trust for Melanie is not a grantor trust. It holds $250,000 of mutual fund investments, and last year the investments returned $20,000 of taxable income. During that year, the trustee paid $10,000 to Melanie’s school for activity fees (so that Melanie could participate in extracurricular activities, go on field trips, and have the services of a tutor). The trustee also received a $4,900 fee for the year.

Now it is time for the trust to file its federal income tax return (the Form 1041). The trust will report $20,000 of income, a $100 personal (trust) exemption, a $4,900 deduction for administrative expenses and a $10,000 deduction for distributions to Melanie. The trust will also send a form K-1 to Melanie showing the $10,000 distribution; she will be liable for the tax on the income. The trust’s taxable income: $5,000.

But what if the trustee also paid $15,000 for Melanie and her full-time attendant to spend a week at a famous theme park? As before, the trust will have a $5,000 deduction for the personal exemption plus administrative expenses, but distributions for Melanie’s benefit totaled $25,000 — and the remaining taxable income was only $15,000. The trust will report a $15,000 distribution of income to Melanie, and send her a K-1 with that figure. She will be liable for income taxes on the $15,000 and the trust will have no income tax liability at all.

We can come up with infinite variations on this story. Perhaps the trustee purchased a vehicle for Melanie, and had it titled in her name. Maybe there were payments for wages for that attendant. Each variation might change the precise nature of the deductions, reporting and taxation, but the bottom line will be (approximately) the same in each case. Distributions to Melanie or for her benefit will shift the taxation from the trust level to her individual return.

  • Is Melanie’s trust a “Qualified Disability Trust”?

Yes, it is. We slipped the controlling fact into our narrative quite a while back. Melanie receives SSI. The same would be true if she was receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) payments. It could be true even if she was not receiving either benefit, but it probably would not be.

The effect of being a Qualified Disability Trust: instead of a $100 exemption (deduction) from trust income on the trust’s own tax return, the trust would get an exemption set at the current annual exemption amount for individuals. In 2015 that means the trust would get a $4,000 exemption — which could ultimately save the trust, or Melanie, the tax on that larger amount.

Some people resist understanding tax issues, thinking they are just too hard. We don’t agree. These concepts are manageable. We hope this helped.

Income Taxation of the Self-Settled Special Needs Trust

MARCH 16, 2015 VOLUME 22 NUMBER 11

This time of year, we are often asked about income tax issues — especially when a trust is involved. It may take us several newsletters, but let’s see if we can’t demystify the income taxation of trusts. We will start with the type of trust we most often get asked about: self-settled special needs trusts.

We will ask you to imagine that you are the trustee of a special needs trust, set up for the benefit of your sister Allie. This trust was funded with proceeds from a lawsuit settlement. Allie is on AHCCCS (she lives in Arizona, where we renamed Medicaid “the Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System” or AHCCCS), and she receives Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits.

[Note: everything we explain here would be the same if Allie was your son, or your aunt, or your husband. It would also be true if the money in the trust came from the probate estate of your grandmother, who left Allie a share of her estate in cash (as opposed to in trust). It would be the same if the court established the trust for Allie, or her mother signed the trust, or if you signed the trust as Allie’s guardian. This advice will probably also be correct if Allie is receiving Social Security Disability Insurance payments — on her own account or on your father’s account — and/or Medicare instead of Medicaid/AHCCCS. If the trust does not include a provision that the Medicaid agency must be paid back upon Allie’s death, the answers we give here might be incorrect — wait until next week to read about that kind of special needs trust.]

Allie never actually signed the trust, but because she was once entitled to receive the trust’s assets outright it is treated (for most purposes) as if she did establish the trust herself. Even though the trust was created or approved by the court, or signed by Allie’s parents, or established by her guardian, it is almost universally referred to as a “self-settled” special needs trust. Those few practitioners who don’t use that term almost all prefer “first-party” special needs trust (though there may be differences regarding whether to hyphenate either descriptive title). We’re going to refer to it as a self-settled special needs trust.

Allie’s self-settled special needs trust has another descriptive name: it is also a “grantor” trust. That term really only has meaning for U.S. federal income tax purposes, but that’s a pretty important purpose and so the term is pervasive. Is it possible that Allie’s trust is not a grantor trust? Yes, barely. The key shorthand way to double-check: look for a provision that says Allie’s Medicaid expenses must be repaid with trust assets upon her death. If that language is in there, either the trust is a grantor trust or someone has created a really peculiar instrument. If that language is not in there, there’s actually a chance the trust is not a grantor trust — before going further with this analysis, go ask a qualified attorney or CPA whether the trust is a grantor trust.

Let’s assume we’ve gotten past this issue, and we can all agree that Allie’s trust is a grantor trust. What does that mean for income tax purposes? Two important things:

  1. Allie’s trust will never pay a separate income tax (well, at least not as long as she’s alive). The trust’s income will always be taxable on her personal, individual, non-trust tax return.
  2. Allie’s trust will also never need to file a separate income tax return. In fact, it will never be allowed to file a separate income tax return.

There is a lot of confusion about Allie’s special needs trust. Does it need to get its own taxpayer identification number (actually, the correct term is Employer Identification Number, or EIN)? No. Then why do accountants, bankers, brokers, even lawyers keep telling you that it does? Because they are wrong, that’s why. Many of them believe that any time a trust has a trustee who is not also a beneficiary the trust must get an EIN. That is not correct.

But just because Allie’s trust doesn’t need an EIN doesn’t mean that it can’t have one. You are permitted to get an EIN for Allie’s trust if you want to.

Let’s assume for a moment that you have not gotten an EIN. In that case, every bank and stockbroker (anyone who pays money to the trust, in fact) should be given Allie’s Social Security number for reporting purposes. The trust’s income will simply be included on Allie’s 1040 (her personal income tax return). Some trust expenses may be legitimate deductions from income, but the Internal Revenue Service effectively ignores Allie’s special needs trust.

That was easy, wasn’t it? Let’s make it just a little more difficult.

Maybe you did get an EIN for Allie’s trust. What kind of tax filings should you make in that case?

Armed with an EIN, you should give that number to banks, stockbrokers and anyone else who holds the trust’s money. The trust’s EIN should not be on Allie’s own bank account (where her SSI gets deposited), even though you might be both trustee and representative payee — and the two funds should not be mixed.

As trustee, you will need to file a fiduciary income tax return — the IRS form number is 1041. It will be easy to file, however. You simply type on the form (there’s no box for this — just type it in the middle of the “Income” section of the form): “This trust is a Grantor Trust under IRC sections 671-679. A statement of items taxable to the grantor is attached.” The exact language is not critical, but that is the sense of what you should tell the IRS. Then attach a summary statement of all items of income and deductible expenses the trust has handled (things paid directly out of Allie’s Social Security account should not be included here).

That’s it. No tax payment. No deductions on the fiduciary income tax return. You are supposed to issue a 1099 (not a K-1, if you are in to those characterizations) for the dividend and interest income received under the trust’s EIN. Those things then get listed on Allie’s personal income tax return (her 1040), and taxed as if they had come directly to Allie — even though they didn’t.

That was pretty easy, wasn’t it? Next week we’ll look at third-party special needs trusts. If you want to get a little preview, you might consider the year-old but still excellent analysis from the Special Needs Alliance about special needs trust taxation.

Different Types of Trusts for Different Purposes

JANUARY 17, 2011 VOLUME 18 NUMBER 2
We frequently are asked to explain the differences between different types of trusts, or to analyze a trust with no more information than its type. Confusion about the differences is widespread, and we hope to provide a little clarity to consideration of trust types.

Before we embark, we have three caveats:

  1. We are not trying to list every possible type of trust here, but just those our clients most often encounter. We may expand this list over time.
  2. Just because you believe your trust is, for example, a “spendthrift” trust does not necessarily make it so. Even if the name of the trust includes one of these categories, it might be inaccurate. The type of trust is determined by the language of the trust itself, and it may take some close reading to identify a trust’s correct categorization.
  3. Most of these categories are neither magical nor exclusive. Just because we can categorize a given trust as a “spendthrift” trust, for example, it does not necessarily mean that it will be protected against all of the beneficiary’s creditors. And just because a trust is a “spendthrift” trust does not mean it could not also be a “special needs” trust, a “bypass” trust or some other category.

With that out of the way, let’s get started on a partial list of common types of trusts you might encounter (or create):

Spendthrift trust. This trust is protected against the creditors of a beneficiary. The trustee can not be compelled to make distributions to a beneficiary, or to the beneficiary’s creditors. This does not necessarily mean that the trustee is not permitted to make such distributions (after all, it might be in the beneficiary’s best interests to pay his or her debts). Even very strong spendthrift language might not be effective against some types of creditors in some states. Common exceptions adopted by state law include child support and alimony obligations or governmental debts. State laws vary widely on these lists.

“Third-Party” Special Needs trust. These trusts are usually specialized spendthrift trusts created for a beneficiary who suffers from a disability. The language of the trust will usually include a clear expression of the intent that the trust’s monies should not interfere (or not interfere too much) with the beneficiary’s public benefits, like Supplemental Security Income or Medicaid. The variation here from state to state, and from beneficiary to beneficiary, can be tremendous, so be very careful about generalizing when discussing third-party special needs trusts.

“Self-Settled” Special Needs trusts. Just to keep the confusion level high, there are also special needs trusts created by the beneficiary himself or herself. Of course, a beneficiary with a disability may have to act through a court proceeding, a guardianship or conservatorship, or a parent or grandparent. But whoever signs the actual documents, if the money in a special needs trust comes from the beneficiary’s own resources (like a personal injury settlement, or an unrestricted inheritance) then the special needs trust will be treated as a self-settled trust. That means the rules will be more difficult, both as to creation and administration of the trust. Can a self-settled special needs trust also be a spendthrift trust? What an interesting question you ask.

Bypass trust. Sometimes these trusts are called “credit shelter,” “exemption,” “decedent’s,” or just “B” trusts, but all of those names are pretty much interchangeable. The basic premise of a bypass trust is that a married couple arranges to take full advantage of the federal estate tax exemption amount, so that they can pass up to twice that amount to their heirs on the second death. That means that on the first spouse’s death a portion of the couple’s assets transfers to the bypass trust irrevocably, with some limitations on the use of the money during the surviving spouse’s life.

Bypass trusts are a special breed just now. Because the new federal estate tax law allows a married couple to retain both estate tax exemption amounts without having to create a bypass trust, there are a lot of trusts out there that may not still be needed. If both spouses are still alive it may be time to change the documents. If one spouse has already died the problems are more complicated. About the time we all figure this out (in two years) the estate tax provisions are scheduled to end automatically. We will have to wait most of those two years to find out if bypass trusts will fade out of existence.

Revocable trusts. Any trust that can be revoked — by anyone, but usually by the person who established the trust — is “revocable.” You may sometimes see the phrase “revocable living trust,” which means the same thing. If the only person who can revoke the trust has died (or become permanently incapacitated) then the trust has become irrevocable. Even if the name of the trust includes the word “revocable” (as, for instance, “The Smith Family Revocable Trust”) it may now be irrevocable.

Irrevocable trusts. The flip side of a revocable trust is, obviously, an irrevocable trust. The category just means that no one has the power to revoke the trust. That does not mean it will go on forever — if the assets held by the trust are spent or distributed, it ceases to exist even though it was irrevocable.

Grantor trusts. This term is most important in considering federal income tax liabilities, but it is often used more broadly. In a nutshell, a grantor trust is one in which the person who established the trust has retained one or more of the elements of control listed in the federal income tax code. Most important (but not the only ones) are: the power to revoke the trust, the right to receive the trust’s income and/or principal, and the role of trustee. Grantor trust rules are actually quite complicated, and are sometimes subject to some interpretation — fortunately, the shades of meaning don’t show up very often. Most trusts are either quite obviously grantor trusts or quite clearly not.

Those are some of the most common terms you might see to describe trusts. In a future Elder Law Issues we will tackle some of the less common ones, like “Crummey” trusts and ILITs, QTIP and QDoT trusts, and — well, feel free to ask us to try to describe/define your favorite trust category.

Distinguishing Two Kinds of Special Needs Trusts

AUGUST 23, 2010 VOLUME 17 NUMBER 27
It really is unfortunate that we didn’t see this problem coming. Those of us who pioneered special needs trust planning back in the 1980s should have realized that we were setting up everyone (including ourselves) for confusion. We should have just given the two main kinds of special needs trusts different names. But we didn’t, and now we have to keep explaining.

There are two different kinds of special needs trusts, and the treatment and effect of any given trust will be very different depending on which kind of trust is involved in each case. Even that statement is misleading: there are actually about six or seven (depending on your definitions) kinds of special needs trusts — but they generally fall into one of two categories. Most (but not all) practitioners use the same language to describe the distinction: a given special needs trust is either a “self-settled” or a “third-party” trust.

Why is the distinction important? Because the rules surrounding the two kinds of trusts are very different. For example, a “self-settled” special needs trust:

  • Must include a provision repaying the state Medicaid agency for the cost of Title XIX (Medicaid) benefits received by the beneficiary upon the death of the beneficiary.
  • May have significant limitations on the kinds of payments the trustee can make; these limitations will vary significantly from state to state.
  • Will likely require some kind of annual accounting to the state Medicaid agency of trust expenditures.
  • May, if the rules are not followed precisely, result in the beneficiary being deemed to have access to trust assets and/or income, and thereby cost the beneficiary his or her Supplemental Security Income and Medicaid eligibility.
  • Will be taxed as if its contents still belonged to the beneficiary — in other words, as what the tax law calls a “grantor” trust.

By contrast, a “third-party” special needs trust usually:

  • May pay for food and shelter for the beneficiary — though such expenditures may result in a reduction in the beneficiary’s Supplemental Security Income payments for one or more months.
  • Can be distributed to other family members, or even charities, upon the death of the primary beneficiary.
  • May be terminated if the beneficiary improves and no longer requires Supplemental Security Income payments or Medicaid eligibility — with the remaining balance being distributed to the beneficiary.
  • Will not have to account (or at least not have to account so closely) to the state Medicaid agency in order to keep the beneficiary eligible.
  • Will be taxed on its own, and at a higher rate than a self-settled trust — though sometimes it will be taxed to the original grantor, and sometimes it will be entitled to slightly favorable treatment as a “Qualified Disability” trust (what is sometimes called a QDisT).

So what is the difference? It is actually easy to distinguish the two kinds of trusts, though even the names can make it seem more complicated. A self-settled trust is established with money or property that once belonged to the beneficiary. That might include a personal injury settlement, an inheritance, or just accumulated wealth. If the beneficiary had the legal right to the unrestrained use of the money — directly or though a conservator (or guardian of the estate) — then the trust is probably a self-settled trust.

It may be clearer to describe a third-party trust. If the money belonged to someone else, and that person established the trust for the benefit of the person with a disability, then the trust will be a third-party trust. Of course, it also has to qualify as a special needs trust; not all third-party trusts include language that is sufficient to gain such treatment (and there is a little variation by state in this regard, too).

So an inheritance might be a third-party special needs trust — if the person leaving the inheritance set it up in an appropriate manner. If not, and the inheritance was left outright to the beneficiary, then the trust set up by a court, conservator (or guardian of the estate) or family member will probably be a self-settled trust.

That leads to an important point: if the trust is established by a court, by a conservator or guardian, or even by the defendant in a personal injury action, it is still a self-settled trust for Social Security and Medicaid purposes. Each of those entities is acting on behalf of the beneficiary, and so their actions are interpreted as if the beneficiary himself (or herself) established the trust.

Since the rules governing these two kinds of trusts are so different, why didn’t we just use different names for them to start with? Good question. Some did: in some states and laws offices, self-settled special needs trusts are called “supplemental benefits” trusts. Unfortunately, the idea didn’t catch on, and sometimes the same term is used to describe third-party trusts instead. Oops.

We collectively apologize for the confusion. In the meantime, note that the literature about special needs trusts sometimes assumes that you know which kind is being described and discussed, and sometimes even mixes up the two types without clearly distinguishing. Pay close attention to anything you read about special needs trusts to make sure you’re getting the right information.

Want to know more? You might want to sign up for our upcoming “Special Needs Trust School” program. We are offering our next session (to live attendees only) on September 15, 2010. You can call Yvette at our offices (520-622-0400) to reserve a seat.

Do You Need a New Tax ID Number for Your Living Trust?

AUGUST 17, 2009  VOLUME 16, NUMBER 51

Imagine that you are trying to change the title on your bank account into the name of the living trust you and your spouse just set up. The nice lady at the bank is telling you that you need to get a new tax identification number for the trust. Could she be right? In a word, no.

Because we are lawyers, however, it is very hard for us to answer a complex question with a single word. So let us review some of the variations with you.

Is your trust revocable? This is the easiest variation. Give the bank (and your credit union, and your broker) your Social Security number. Joint trust between you and your spouse? No problem. Give them either Social Security number — just like before, when both of your names were on the account as individuals.

What if the trust is irrevocable? This is a little more confusing, but ultimately the answer is probably the same. If you receive any significant benefit from the trust, and your money went into it in the first place, you still use your Social Security number.

Is someone else the trustee of your trust? The answer is still the same — though many bank and brokerage officers will insist that this is what makes it mandatory for you to get a separate tax number. Simply put, they are wrong. If the trust is revocable use your Social Security number regardless of who the trustee might be. If it is irrevocable and someone else is the trustee, but you still receive benefits from the trust, use your Social Security number.

What if the trust is a “special needs” trust set up with your personal injury settlement or other funds? You still use your Social Security number. The “special needs” designation does not change the answer.

What about the “special needs” trust you set up with your money but for the benefit of your child? Now we’re getting interesting. Can you revoke the trust? What happens if your child dies before you do — does the money return to you? In either case, you probably use your Social Security number, and report the income on your tax return. Talk to your accountant and/or lawyer — don’t accept the banker’s (or broker’s) analysis of the legal and tax implications.

Is there ever a time when a new tax ID number is required for a trust? Yes, though the circumstances requiring a separate number are not as numerous as most bank officers, brokers and (for that matter) accountants think. These are not the only situations requiring a new number, but the three most common are:

  1. Life insurance trusts, or so-called “Crummey” trusts. Just because your trust owns life insurance it does not automatically follow that this special rule applies, but if it was set up precisely to own life insurance, and you are not the trustee, it likely needs its own number.
  2. A trust that becames irrevocable because of the death of the person setting the the trust up in the first place. This can happen when one spoue dies and a trust becomes partly irrevocable, too.
  3. A special needs trusts you set up (with your money) for the benefit of someone else, but which does not revert to you if the beneficiary dies before you — especially if you are not even the trustee.

When a separate number is required, what kind of number is it? The actual name for a tax identification number for a trust is “Employer Identification Number” or EIN. That is true even though the trust may not have any employees. The common acronym “TIN” (tax identification number) is not really an IRS or Social Security term at all — it is usually used as an umbrella term to encompass both EINs and Social Security numbers.

Why do bankers and stockbrokers insist that I need a new tax ID number if I do not? We’re puzzled, too. Our best answer: they are reading from a prepared list of choices, and they do not really understand the reasoning behind the various categories and approaches. We have had good experience talking with the bank employee on behalf of our clients, but sometimes it requires working up through the levels of authority.

Did you already get an EIN (Employer Identification Number) for your trust? Is that a problem? Probably not. You have two choices: change the tax identification number on all the accounts back to your Social Security number and file a final income tax return for the trust, or file annual tax returns under the trust’s EIN but without including any income or expenses — list those on your own tax return instead.

There is a lot of confusion in the financial industry about tax identification numbers and trusts. Feel free to print this out and take it to your banker.

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